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James1 British & World English

The name of seven Stuart kings of Scotland:

James2 British & World English

The name of two kings of England, Ireland, and Scotland:

James, C. L. R. British & World English

(1901–89), Trinidadian historian, journalist, political theorist, and novelist; full name Cyril Lionel Robert James. After working as a cricket columnist he established a reputation as a historian with his study of the Haitian revolution, Black Jacobins (1938)

James, Henry British & World English

(1843–1916), American-born British novelist and critic. His early novels, notably The Portrait of a Lady (1881), deal with the relationship between European civilization and American life, while later works such as What Maisie Knew (1897) depict English life. He was the brother of William James

James, Jesse British & World English

(1847–82), American outlaw; full name Jesse Woodson James. He joined with his brother Frank (1843–1915) and others to form a notorious band of outlaws which specialized in bank and train robberies and inspired many westerns

James, M. R. British & World English

(1862–1936), English scholar and writer of ghost stories; full name Montague Rhodes James. He is noted for eerie tales collected in such volumes as Ghost Stories of an Antiquary (1904)

James, P. D. British & World English

Baroness James of Holland Park (1920–2014), English writer of detective fiction; full name Phyllis Dorothy James. She is noted for her novels featuring the poet-detective Adam Dalgleish, including A Taste for Death (1986)

James, St1 British & World English

An Apostle, son of Zebedee and brother of John; known as St James the Great. He was put to death by Herod Agrippa I; afterwards, according to a Spanish tradition, his body was taken to Santiago de Compostela. Feast day, 25 July

James, St2 British & World English

An Apostle; known as St James the Less. Feast day (in the Eastern Church) 9 October; (in the Western Church) 1 May

James, St3 British & World English

Leader of the early Christian Church at Jerusalem; known as St James the Just or the Lord’s brother. He was put to death by the Sanhedrin. Feast day, 1 May

James, William British & World English

(1842–1910), American philosopher and psychologist. A leading exponent of pragmatism, he sought a functional definition of truth, and in psychology he is credited with introducing the concept of the stream of consciousness. He was the brother of Henry James

James in Adam, Robert British & World English

(1728–92), Scottish architect. He was influenced by neoclassical theory and, assisted by his brother James (1730–94), he initiated a lighter, more decorative style than the Palladianism favoured by the British architecture of the previous half-century

James in James Bay British & World English

A shallow southern arm of Hudson Bay, Canada

James Bay British & World English

A shallow southern arm of Hudson Bay, Canada

Agee, James British & World English

(1909–55), US writer; full name James Rufus Agee. He wrote Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (1941) after touring the South with photographer Walker Evans and A Death in the Family (1957), for which he was posthumously awarded a Pulitzer Prize. He also wrote the screenplays for The African Queen (1951) and The Night of the Hunter (1955)

Hoban, James British & World English

(1762–1831), US architect; born in Ireland. He designed the White House in Washington, DC 1793–1801 and, after it was burned in the War of 1812, supervised its restoration and redesign 1815–29

Beard, James British & World English

(1903–85), US chef and cookbook author. He hosted the first televised cooking show and founded a cooking school in New York

Bond, James British & World English

A British secret agent in the spy novels of Ian Fleming, known also by his code name 007

Brown, James British & World English

(1928–2006), American soul and funk singer and songwriter. In the 1960s he played a leading role in the development of funk with songs such as ‘Papa’s Got a Brand New Bag’ (1965) and ‘Sex Machine’ (1970)

Bruce, James British & World English

(1730–94), Scottish explorer. In 1770 he was the first European to discover the source of the Blue Nile, although his Travels to Discover the Sources of the Nile (1790), recounting his expedition, was dismissed by his contemporaries as fabrication

Dean, James British & World English

(1931–55), American actor; born James Byron. Although he starred in only three films before dying in a car accident, he became a cult figure closely identified with the title role of Rebel Without a Cause (1955), symbolizing for many the disaffected youth of the post-war era

Ensor, James British & World English

Baron (1860–1949), Belgian painter and engraver, noted for his macabre subjects; full name James Sydney Ensor. His work is significant both for symbolism and for the development of 20th-century expressionism

Fisk, James British & World English

(1834–72), US financier; known as Big Jim. He made his fortune in the stock manipulation that ruined the Erie Railroad, and with Jay Gould he engineered events that involved the US treasury in the scandalous Black Friday attempt to corner the gold market in 1869

Gibbs, James British & World English

(1682–1754), Scottish architect. He developed Wren’s ideas for London’s city churches, notably at St Martin’s-in-the-Fields (1722-6); his best-known secular building is the Radcliffe Camera in Oxford (completed 1737–48), which he developed from earlier designs by Hawksmoor

Hogg, James British & World English

(1770–1835), Scottish poet. A shepherd in the Ettrick Forest whose talent was discovered by Sir Walter Scott, he is best known today for his prose work The Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824)

home, James ! British & World English

Used as a humorous way of exhorting the driver of a vehicle to drive home quickly

Ivory, James British & World English

(B.1928), American film director. He has made a number of films in partnership with the producer Ismail Merchant, including Heat and Dust (1983) and Howard’s End (1992)

James River British & World English

A river that flows for 700 miles (1,100 km) from North Dakota through South Dakota into the Missouri River

Jones, James British & World English

(1921–77), US writer. His novel From Here to Eternity (1951) was made into a movie in 1953. He also wrote The Thin Red Line (1962). Whistle, which he did not complete, was published posthumously in 1978

Joyce, James British & World English

(1882–1941), Irish writer; full name James Augustine Aloysius Joyce. One of the most important writers of the modernist movement, he made his name with Dubliners (short stories, 1914). His novel Ulysses (1922) revolutionized the structure of the modern novel and developed the stream-of-consciousness technique. Other notable novels: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1914–15) and Finnegans Wake (1939)

Lind, James British & World English

(1716–94), Scottish physician. He laid the foundations for the discovery of vitamins by performing experiments on scurvy in sailors. After his death the Royal Navy officially adopted the practice of giving lime juice to sailors

Mason, James British & World English

(1909–84), English actor; full name James Neville Mason. He acted in more than a hundred films, notably A Star is Born (1954), Lolita (1962), and Georgy Girl (1966)

Otis, James British & World English

(1725–83), American statesman. He led the majority in the Massachusetts legislature 1766–69 and opposed various revenue acts imposed by the British

Watt, James British & World English

(1736–1819), Scottish engineer. Among his many innovations he greatly improved the efficiency of the Newcomen steam engine, which was then adopted for a variety of purposes. He also introduced the term horsepower

Wolfe, James British & World English

(1727–59), British general. One of the leaders of the expedition sent to seize French Canada, he commanded the attack on the French capital, Quebec (1759). He was fatally wounded while leading his troops to victory on the Plains of Abraham, the scene of the battle which led to British control of Canada

Wyatt, James British & World English

(1746–1813), English architect. He was both a neoclassicist and a leading figure in the Gothic revival, the latter seen most notably in his design for Fonthill Abbey in Wiltshire (1796–1807)

Baldwin, James British & World English

(1924–87), American novelist and black civil rights activist; full name James Arthur Baldwin. Notable works: Go Tell it on the Mountain (1953) and Giovanni’s Room (1956)

Bolger, James British & World English

(B.1935), New Zealand National Party statesman, Prime Minister 1990-7; full name James Brendan Bolger

Boswell, James British & World English

(1740–95), Scottish author, companion and biographer of Samuel Johnson. He is known for Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides (1785) and The Life of Samuel Johnson (1791)

Bradley, James British & World English

(1693–1762), English astronomer. Bradley was appointed Astronomer Royal in 1742. He discovered the aberration of light and also observed the oscillation of the earth’s axis (nutation). His star catalogue was published posthumously

Cagney, James British & World English

(1899–1986), American actor. He is chiefly remembered for playing gangster roles in films such as The Public Enemy (1931), but he was also a skilled dancer and comedian who received an Oscar for his part in the musical Yankee Doodle Dandy (1942)

Cameron, James British & World English

(B.1954), Canadian film director. His films include The Terminator (1984) and Titanic (1997)

Dickey, James British & World English

(1923–97), US poet and writer; full name James Lafayette Dickey. His works include the poetry in Buckdancer’s Choice (1965) and the novel Deliverance (1970)

Franck, James British & World English

(1882–1964), German-born American physicist. He worked on the bombardment of atoms by electrons and became involved in the US atom bomb project; he advocated the explosion of the bomb in an uninhabited area to demonstrate its power to Japan

Herriot, James British & World English

(1916–1995), English short-story writer and veterinary surgeon; pseudonym of James Alfred Wight. His experiences as a vet in North Yorkshire inspired a series of stories including All Creatures Great and Small (1972)

Hutton, James British & World English

(1726–97), Scottish geologist. Although controversial at the time, his uniformitarian description of the processes that have shaped the surface of the earth is now accepted as showing that the earth is very much older than had previously been believed

Iredell, James British & World English

(1751–99) US Supreme Court associate justice 1790–99; born in England. Appointed to the Court by President Washington, he was a Federalist

Madison, James British & World English

(1751–1836), American Democratic Republican statesman, 4th President of the US 1809–17. He played a leading part in drawing up the US Constitution (1787) and proposed the Bill of Rights (1791)

Monroe, James British & World English

(1758–1831), American Democratic Republican statesman, 5th President of the US 1817–25. In 1803, while minister to France under President Jefferson, he negotiated and ratified the Louisiana Purchase; he is chiefly remembered, however, as the originator of the Monroe Doctrine

Nasmyth, James British & World English

(1808–90), Scottish engineer. He invented the steam hammer (1839)

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