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Muhammad British & World English

(Circa 570–632), Arab prophet and founder of Islam

Muhammad, Elijah British & World English

(1897–1975), US activist; born Elijah Poole. He directed the growth of the Black Muslim movement from 1934 and advocated black separatism

Muhammad, Mahathir British & World English

(B.1925), Malaysian statesman, Prime Minister 1981–2003

Muhammad Ali1 British & World English

(1769–1849), Ottoman viceroy and pasha of Egypt 1805–49, possibly of Albanian descent. He modernized Egypt’s infrastructure, making it the leading power in the eastern Mediterranean, and established a dynasty that survived until 1952

Muhammad Ali2 British & World English

(B.1942), American boxer; born Cassius Marcellus Clay. He won the world heavyweight title in 1964, 1974, and 1978, becoming the only boxer to be world champion three times

Abduh, Muhammad British & World English

(1849–1905), Egyptian Islamic scholar, jurist, and liberal reformer

Ayub Khan, Muhammad British & World English

(1907–74), Pakistani soldier and statesman, President 1958–69

Zia ul-Haq, Muhammad British & World English

(1924–88), Pakistani general and statesman, President 1978–88. As Chief of Staff he led the coup which deposed President Zulfikar Bhutto in 1977. He banned all political parties and began to introduce strict Islamic laws

Iqbal, Sir Muhammad British & World English

(1877–1938), Indian poet, philosopher, and politician. As president of the Muslim League in 1930, he advocated the creation of a separate Muslim state in NW India; the demands of the League led ultimately to the establishment of Pakistan in 1947

Jinnah, Muhammad Ali British & World English

(1876–1948), Indian statesman and founder of Pakistan. He headed the Muslim League in its struggle with the Hindu-oriented Indian National Congress over Indian independence, and in 1947 he became the first Governor General and President of Pakistan

Akbar, Jalaludin Muhammad British & World English

(1542–1605), Mogul emperor of India 1556–1605; known as Akbar the Great. Akbar expanded the Mogul empire to incorporate northern India and established an efficient and enlightened administration

Gaddafi, Mu'ammer Muhammad al- British & World English

(1942–2011), Libyan colonel, head of state 1970–2011. After leading the coup which overthrew King Idris in 1969, he established the Libyan Arab Republic. Gaddafi pursued an anti-colonial policy and was accused of supporting international terrorism. He was overthrown in 2011, following an uprising assisted by a NATO-led military intervention, and killed by rebel forces

if the mountain won't come to Muhammad, Muhammad must go to the mountain British & World English

If someone won’t do as you wish or a situation can’t be arranged to suit you, you must accept it and change your plans accordingly

Muhammad Ahmad in Gordon, Charles George British & World English

(1833–85), British general and colonial administrator. He made his name by crushing the Taiping Rebellion (1863-4) in China. In 1884 he fought Mahdist forces in Sudan led by Muhammad Ahmad(see Mahdi), but was trapped at Khartoum and killed

Muhammad Neguib in Nasser, Gamal Abdel British & World English

(1918–70), Egyptian colonel and statesman, Prime Minister 1954-6 and President 1956–70. He deposed King Farouk in 1952 and President Muhammad Neguib in 1954. His nationalization of the Suez Canal brought war with Britain, France, and Israel in 1956; he also waged two unsuccessful wars against Israel (1956 and 1967)

Muhammad Reza in Pahlavi1 British & World English

Muhammad Reza (1919–80), ruled 1941–79, son of Reza Pahlavi; also known as Reza Shah. Opposition to his regime culminated in the Islamic revolution of 1979 under Ayatollah Khomeini; Reza Shah was forced into exile and died in Egypt

Pahlavi1 British & World English

Muhammad Reza (1919–80), ruled 1941–79, son of Reza Pahlavi; also known as Reza Shah. Opposition to his regime culminated in the Islamic revolution of 1979 under Ayatollah Khomeini; Reza Shah was forced into exile and died in Egypt

Mirza Ali Muhammad in Babism British & World English

A religion founded in 1844 by the Persian Mirza Ali Muhammad of Shiraz (1819–50) (popularly known as ‘the Bab’), who taught that a new prophet would follow Muhammad

Zahir ad-Din Muhammad in Babur British & World English

(1483–1530), first Mogul emperor of India 1526–30, descendant of Tamerlane; born Zahir ad-Din Muhammad. He invaded India circa 1525 and conquered the territory from the Oxus to Patna

Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat in Sadat, Anwar al- British & World English

(1918–81), Egyptian statesman, President 1970–81; full name Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat. Sadat worked to achieve peace in the Middle East, visiting Israel (1977) and attending talks with Menachim Begin at Camp David in 1978, the year they shared the Nobel Peace Prize. He was assassinated by members of the Islamic Jihad

Muhammad Ahmed Ben Bella in Ben Bella, Ahmed British & World English

(1918–2012), Algerian statesman, Prime Minister 1962-3 and President 1963-5; full name Muhammad Ahmed Ben Bella. The first President of an independent Algeria, he was overthrown in a military coup

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in Wahhabi British & World English

A member of a strictly orthodox Sunni Muslim sect founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703–92). It advocates a return to the early Islam of the Koran and Sunna, rejecting later innovations; the sect is still the predominant religious force in Saudi Arabia

Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak in Mubarak, Hosni British & World English

(B.1928), Egyptian statesman, President 1981–2011; full name Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak. He did much to establish closer links between Egypt and other Arab nations, though he aligned Egypt against Iraq in the Gulf War of 1991. He left office in 2011 following a series of demonstrations against him and his government

Sidi Muhammad ibn Ali es-Senussi in Senussi British & World English

A member of a North African Muslim religious fraternity founded in 1837 by Sidi Muhammad ibn Ali es-Senussi (d.1859)

if the mountain won't come to Muhammad, Muhammad must go to the mountain in mountain British & World English

If someone won’t do as you wish or a situation can’t be arranged to suit you, you must accept it and change your plans accordingly