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Nicholas British & World English

The name of two tsars of Russia:

Nicholas, St British & World English

(4th century), Christian prelate. Said to have been bishop of Myra in Lycia, he is patron saint of children, sailors, Greece, and Russia. The figure of Santa Claus (a corruption of St Nicholas) derives from the Dutch custom of giving gifts to children on his feast day (6 December)

Rowe, Nicholas British & World English

(1674–1718), English dramatist. Notable works: Tamerlane (1701) and The Fair Penitent (1703)

Ridley, Nicholas British & World English

(Circa 1500–55), English Protestant bishop and martyr. He was appointed bishop of Rochester (1547) and then of London (1550). He opposed the Catholic policies of Mary I, for which he was burnt at the stake in Oxford

Boileau, Nicholas British & World English

(1636–1711), French critic and poet; full name Nicholas Boileau-Despréaux. Boileau is considered particularly important as one of the founders of French literary criticism. His didactic poem Art poétique (1674) defined principles of composition and criticism

Culpeper, Nicholas British & World English

(1616–54), English herbalist. His Complete Herbal (1653) popularized herbalism and, despite embracing ideas of astrology and the doctrine of signatures, was important in the development of botany and pharmacology

Hawksmoor, Nicholas British & World English

(1661–1736), English architect. Having become a clerk to Sir Christopher Wren in 1679, in 1690 he went on to work with Vanbrugh at Castle Howard and Blenheim Palace. He later designed six London churches

Nicholas I in Nicholas British & World English

Nicholas I (1796–1855), brother of Alexander I, reigned 1825–55. At home he pursued rigidly conservative policies, while his expansionism in the Near East led to the Crimean War

Nicholas II in Nicholas British & World English

Nicholas II (1868–1918), son of Alexander III, reigned 1894–1917. Forced to abdicate after the Russian Revolution in 1917, he was shot along with his family a year later

Adrian IV British & World English

(Circa 1100–59), pope 1154-9; born Nicholas Breakspear. He is the only Englishman to have held this office

Lindsay, Vachel British & World English

(1879–1931), US poet; full name Nicholas Vachel Lindsay. His works are collected in volumes including General Booth Enters into Heaven and Other Poems (1913) and The Congo and Other Poems (1914)

Nicholas Breakspear in Adrian IV British & World English

(Circa 1100–59), pope 1154-9; born Nicholas Breakspear. He is the only Englishman to have held this office

Nicholas Vachel Lindsay in Lindsay, Vachel British & World English

(1879–1931), US poet; full name Nicholas Vachel Lindsay. His works are collected in volumes including General Booth Enters into Heaven and Other Poems (1913) and The Congo and Other Poems (1914)

Nicholas Boileau-Despréaux in Boileau, Nicholas British & World English

(1636–1711), French critic and poet; full name Nicholas Boileau-Despréaux. Boileau is considered particularly important as one of the founders of French literary criticism. His didactic poem Art poétique (1674) defined principles of composition and criticism

Jean Nicholas Arthur Rimbaud in Rimbaud, Arthur British & World English

(1854–91), French poet; full name Jean Nicholas Arthur Rimbaud. Known for poems such as ‘Le Bateau ivre’ (1871) and the collection of symbolist prose poems Une Saison en enfer (1873), and for his stormy relationship with Paul Verlaine, he stopped writing at about the age of 20 and spent the rest of his life travelling

Sir Nicholas Alexander Faldo in Faldo, Nick British & World English

(B.1957), English golfer; full name Sir Nicholas Alexander Faldo. He won the British Open championship in 1987, 1990, and 1992 and the US Masters Tournament in 1989, 1990, and 1996

Nicholas William Peter Clegg in Clegg, Nick British & World English

(B.1967), British Liberal Democrat statesman, Deputy Prime Minister since 2010 (in coalition with the Conservatives); full name Nicholas William Peter Clegg

Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten in Mountbatten, Louis British & World English

1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (1900–79), British admiral and administrator; full name Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten. He was supreme Allied commander in SE Asia (1943-5) and the last viceroy (1947) and first Governor General of India (1947-8). He was killed by an IRA bomb while on his yacht