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Richard British & World English

The name of three kings of England:

Richard New Oxford Dictionary for Writers & Editors

, Sir Cliff (b.1940), British pop singer; born Harry Roger Webb

Richard, Maurice British & World English

(1921–2000), Canadian hockey player; nickname The Rocket; full name Maurice Joseph Henri Richard. Playing for the Montreal Canadiens 1942–60, he was the first professional hockey player to score 50 goals in one season 1944–45, a record that stood until the early 1980s. Hockey Hall of Fame (1961)

Richard, Sir Cliff British & World English

(B.1940), British pop singer, born in India; born Harry Roger Webb. With his group the Drifters (later called the Shadows), he recorded such songs as ‘Living Doll’ (1959). Since the 1970s he has combined a successful solo pop career with evangelism

Richard I New Oxford Dictionary for Writers & Editors

(1157–99), king of England 1189–99; known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart

Richard in Cromwell, Oliver British & World English

(1599–1658), English general and statesman, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth 1653-8. Cromwell was the leader of the victorious Parliamentary forces (or Roundheads) in the English Civil War. As head of state he styled himself Lord Protector, and refused Parliament’s offer of the Crown in 1657. His rule was notable for its puritan reforms in the Church of England. He was briefly succeeded by his son Richard (1626–1712), who was forced into exile in 1659

Richard in restoration British & World English

The re-establishment of Charles II as King of England in 1660. After the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, his son Richard (1626–1712) proved incapable of maintaining the Protectorate, and General Monck organized the king’s return from exile

Byrd, Richard British & World English

(1888–1957), American explorer, naval officer, and aviator; full name Richard Evelyn Byrd. He claimed to have made the first aircraft flight over the North Pole (1926), although his actual course has been disputed. He was the first to fly over the South Pole (1929)

Dadd, Richard British & World English

(1817–86), English painter. After killing his father while suffering a mental breakdown, he was confined in asylums, where he produced a series of visionary paintings

Nash, Richard British & World English

(1674–1762), Welsh dandy; known as Beau Nash. He was an arbiter of fashion and etiquette in the early Georgian age

Nixon, Richard British & World English

(1913–94), American Republican statesman, 37th President of the US 1969–74; full name Richard Milhous Nixon. His period of office was overshadowed by the Vietnam War. Re-elected in 1972, he became the first President to resign from office, owing to his involvement in the Watergate scandal

Petty, Richard British & World English

(1937-), US race car driver 1958–92. The first stock car driver to achieve career winnings of $1 million, he has 200 career wins and was the first motor sportsman to receive the Medal of Freedom (1992). Motorsports Hall of Fame of America (1989)

Burbage, Richard British & World English

(Circa 1567–1619), English actor. He was the creator of most of Shakespeare’s great tragic roles — Hamlet, Othello, Lear, and Richard III — and was also associated with the building of the Globe Theatre

Burton, Richard British & World English

(1925–84), Welsh actor; born Richard Jenkins. He often co-starred with Elizabeth Taylor (to whom he was twice married) in films such as Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966)

Cobden, Richard British & World English

(1804–65), English political reformer, one of the leading spokesmen of the free-trade movement in Britain. From 1838, together with John Bright, he led the Anti-Corn-Law League in its successful campaign for the repeal of the Corn Laws (1846)

Dawkins, Richard British & World English

(B.1941), English biologist. Dawkins’s book The Selfish Gene (1976) did much to popularize the theory of sociobiology. In The Blind Watchmaker (1986) Dawkins discussed evolution by natural selection and suggested that the theory could answer the fundamental question of why life exists

Fosbury, Richard British & World English

(B.1947), American high jumper. He originated the now standard style of jumping known as the ‘Fosbury flop’, in which the jumper clears the bar head first and backwards. In 1968 he won the Olympic gold medal using this technique

Hakluyt, Richard British & World English

(Circa 1552–1616), English geographer and historian. He compiled Principal Navigations, Voyages, and Discoveries of the English Nation (1598), a collection of accounts of great voyages of discovery

Neville, Richard British & World English

See Warwick, Richard Neville.

Rodgers, Richard British & World English

(1902–79), American composer; full name Richard Charles Rodgers. He worked with librettist Lorenz Hart (1895–1943) before collaborating with Oscar Hammerstein II on a succession of popular musicals, including The Sound of Music (1959)

Rogers, Richard British & World English

Baron Rogers of Riverside (b.1933), British architect, born in Italy; full name Richard George Rogers. A leading exponent of high-tech architecture, his major works include the Pompidou Centre in Paris (1971-7), designed with the Italian architect Renzo Piano (b.1937), and the Lloyd’s Building in London (1986)

Strauss, Richard British & World English

(1864–1949), German composer. With the librettist Hugo von Hofmannsthal he produced operas such as Der Rosenkavalier (1911). Often regarded as the last of the 19th-century romantic composers, Strauss is also known for the tone poem Also Sprach Zarathustra (1896)

Tucker, Richard British & World English

(1913–75) US opera singer; born Rubin Ticker. A tenor, he sang with the Metropolitan Opera for 30 seasons, beginning with his debut in 1945

Upjohn, Richard British & World English

(1802–78), US architect; born in England. He is best known for his buildings, such as Trinity Church 1839–46 in New York City, that are designed in Gothic Revival style

Wagner, Richard British & World English

(1813–83), German composer; full name Wilhelm Richard Wagner. He developed an operatic genre which he called music drama, synthesizing music, drama, verse, legend, and spectacle. Notable works: The Flying Dutchman (opera, 1841), Der Ring des Nibelungen (a cycle of four operas, 1847–74), Tristan and Isolde (music drama, 1859), and the Siegfried Idyll (1870)

Beeching, Richard British & World English

Baron (1913–85), English businessman and engineer. As Chairman of the British Railways Board (1963-5) he was responsible for the closure of a substantial proportion of the British rail network

Dedekind, Richard British & World English

(1831–1916), German mathematician, one of the founders of abstract algebra and modern mathematics

Dimbleby, Richard British & World English

(1913–65), English broadcaster; full name Frederick Richard Dimbleby. He was the BBC’s first news correspondent (1936) and was particularly noted for his radio and television commentaries on royal, national, and international events. His sons David (b.1938) and Jonathan (b.1944) have both followed their father into careers in news broadcasting

D'Oyly Carte, Richard British & World English

(1844–1901), English impresario and producer. He brought together the librettist Sir W. S. Gilbert and the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan, producing many of their operettas in London’s Savoy Theatre, which he had established in 1881

Jefferies, Richard British & World English

(1848–87), English writer and naturalist renowned for his observation of English rural life; full name John Richard Jefferies. Notable works: Bevis (novel, 1882) and The Story of my Heart (autobiography, 1883)

Lovelace, Richard British & World English

(1618–57), English poet. A Royalist, he was imprisoned in 1642, when he probably wrote his famous poem ‘To Althea, from Prison’

Trevithick, Richard British & World English

(1771–1833), English engineer. His chief contribution was in the use of high-pressure steam to drive a double-acting engine. Trevithick built the world’s first railway locomotive (1804) and many stationary engines

Attenborough, Richard British & World English

Baron Attenborough of Richmond-upon-Thames (1923–2014), English film actor, producer, and director; brother of David Attenborough; full name Richard Samuel Attenborough. Notable films directed: Oh! What a Lovely War (1969), Gandhi (1982), and Shadowlands (1993)

Chamberlain, Richard British & World English

(1934-), US actor; full name George Richard Chamberlain. Noted for his title role in the television series Dr. Kildare (1961–66), he also starred in the miniseries Shogun (1980) and The Thorn Birds (1983)

Doll, Sir Richard British & World English

(1912–2005), English physician; full name William Richard Shaboe Doll. With Sir A. Bradford Hill (1897–1991) he was the first to show a statistical link between smoking and lung cancer

Hoe, Richard March British & World English

(1812–86), American inventor and industrialist. In 1846 he became the first printer to develop a successful rotary press, which greatly increased the speed of printing

Owen, Sir Richard British & World English

(1804–92), English anatomist and palaeontologist. Owen made important contributions to evolution, taxonomy, and palaeontology and coined the word dinosaur in 1841. He was a strong opponent of Darwinism

Branson, Sir Richard British & World English

(B.1950), English businessman. He made his name with the company Virgin Records, which he set up in 1969. He later influenced the opening up of air routes with Virgin Atlantic Airways, established in 1984

Burton, Sir Richard British & World English

(1821–90), English explorer, anthropologist, and translator; full name Sir Richard Francis Burton. He and John Hanning Speke were the first Europeans to see Lake Tanganyika (1858). He translated the Arabian Nights (1885-8), the Kama Sutra (1883), The Perfumed Garden (1886), and other works

Daley, Richard Joseph British & World English

(1902–76), US politician. As mayor of Chicago 1955–76, he was known as a big-city boss. He also was prominent in the national Democratic Party

Dana, Richard Henry British & World English

(1815–82), American adventurer, lawyer, and writer, known for his account of his voyage from Boston round Cape Horn to California, Two Years before the Mast (1840)

Hadlee, Sir Richard British & World English

(B.1951), New Zealand cricketer; full name Sir Richard John Hadlee. An all-rounder, he took a record of 431 Test wickets during his career

Sears, Richard Warren British & World English

(1863–1914), US businessman. He founded his first mail-order business, selling watches, in Minneapolis in 1886, moved to Chicago, and sold the business. He then began a partnership with Alvah Curtis Roebuck (1864–1948), a watch repairman, that became Sears, Roebuck & Co. in 1893

Steele, Sir Richard British & World English

(1672–1729), Irish essayist and dramatist. He founded and wrote for the periodicals the Tatler (1709–11) and the Spectator (1711–12), the latter in collaboration with Joseph Addison

Arkwright, Sir Richard British & World English

(1732–92), English inventor and industrialist. In 1767 he patented a water-powered spinning machine capable of producing yarn strong enough to be used as warp

Krafft-Ebing, Richard von British & World English

(1840–1902), German physician and psychologist. He established the relationship between syphilis and general paralysis and pioneered the systematic study of aberrant sexual behaviour

Sickert, Walter Richard British & World English

(1860–1942), British painter, of Danish and Anglo-Irish descent. His subjects are mainly urban scenes and figure compositions, particularly pictures of the theatre and music hall, and drab domestic interiors

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