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jean British & World English

Heavy twilled cotton cloth, especially denim

Jean in Bernoulli British & World English

Johann (1667–1748), the brother of Jakob, who contributed to differential and integral calculus; also known as Jean or John Bernoulli

Jean in Clouet British & World English

Two French court portrait painters, Jean (circa 1485–1541) and his son François (circa 1516–72)

Arp, Jean British & World English

(1887–1966), French painter, sculptor, and poet; also known as Hans Arp. He was a co-founder of the Dada movement and is noted for his three-dimensional abstract curvilinear sculptures in marble and bronze

Jean Paul British & World English

(1763–1825), German novelist; pseudonym of Johann Paul Friedrich Richter. He is noted for his romantic novels, including Hesperus (1795), and for comic works such as Titan (1800-3)

Muir, Jean British & World English

(1928–95), English fashion designer; full name Jean Elizabeth Muir. Her designs are noted for their subtle, restrained, and fluid styles

Rhys, Jean British & World English

(1890–1979), British novelist and short-story writer, born in Dominica; pseudonym of Ella Gwendolen Rees Williams. Her novels include Good Morning, Midnight (1939) and Wide Sargasso Sea (1966)

Vigo, Jean British & World English

(1905–34), French film director. His experimental films, which combine lyrical, surrealist, and realist elements, include Zéro de conduite (1933) and L’Atalante (1934)

Batten, Jean British & World English

(1909–82), New Zealand aviator. She was the first woman to fly from England to Australia and back (1934-5), and in 1936 she made the first direct solo flight from England to New Zealand

Genet, Jean British & World English

(1910–86), French novelist, poet, and dramatist. Much of his work portrayed life in the criminal and homosexual underworlds, of which he was a part. Notable works: Our Lady of the Flowers (novel, 1944), The Thief’s Journal (autobiography, 1949), and The Maids (play, 1947)

Harlow, Jean British & World English

(1911–37), American film actress; born Harlean Carpenter. Her six films with Clark Gable included Red Dust (1932) and Saratoga (1937)

Millet, Jean British & World English

(1814–75), French painter; full name Jean François Millet. He was famous for the dignity he brought to the treatment of peasant subjects, on which he concentrated from 1850. Notable works: The Gleaners (1857)

Piaget, Jean British & World English

(1896–1980), Swiss psychologist. Piaget’s work on the intellectual and logical abilities of children provided the single biggest impact on the study of the development of human thought processes. He described the mind as proceeding through a series of fixed stages of cognitive development, each being a prerequisite for the next

Racine, Jean British & World English

(1639–99), French dramatist, the principal tragedian of the French classical period. Central to most of his tragedies is a perception of the blind folly of human passion, continually enslaved and unsatisfied. Notable works: Andromaque (1667) and Phèdre (1677)

Renoir, Jean British & World English

(1894–1979), French film director, son of Auguste Renoir. Notable films: La Grande illusion (1937) and La Règle du jeu (1939)

Anouilh, Jean British & World English

(1910–87), French dramatist. He wrote many plays but is best known for his reworking of the Greek myth of Antigone in Antigone (1944)

Chrétien, Jean British & World English

(B.1934), Canadian Liberal statesman, Prime Minister 1993–2003; full name Joseph-Jacques Jean Chrétien

Cocteau, Jean British & World English

(1889–1963), French dramatist, novelist, and film director. His plays are noted for their striking blend of poetry, irony, and fantasy. Notable works: La Machine infernale (play, 1934), La Belle et la bête (film, 1946), and Les Enfants terribles (novel, 1929)

Dubuffet, Jean British & World English

(1901–85), French painter. He rejected traditional techniques, incorporating materials such as sand and plaster in his paintings and producing sculptures made from rubbish

Sibelius, Jean British & World English

(1865–1957), Finnish composer; born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius. His affinity with his country’s landscape and legends, especially the epic Kalevala, is expressed in a series of tone poems including The Swan of Tuonela (1893), Finlandia (1899), and Tapiola (1925)

Baudrillard, Jean British & World English

(1929–2007), French sociologist and cultural critic, associated with postmodernism

Fabre, Jean Henri British & World English

(1823–1915), French entomologist. Fabre became well known for his meticulous observations of insect behaviour, notably the life cycles of dung beetles, oil beetles, and solitary bees and wasps

Getty, Jean Paul British & World English

(1892–1976), American industrialist. He made a large fortune in the oil industry and was also a noted art collector. He founded the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles

Godard, Jean-Luc British & World English

(B.1930), French film director. He was one of the leading figures of the nouvelle vague. His films include Breathless (1960) and Alphaville (1965)

Killy, Jean-Claude British & World English

(1943-) French alpine skier. He won three gold medals at the 1968 Olympic games and was winner of the World Cup 1967, 1968

King, Billie Jean British & World English

(B.1943), American tennis player. She won a record twenty Wimbledon titles, including six singles titles (1966-8; 1972-3; 1975), ten doubles titles, and four mixed doubles titles

Marat, Jean Paul British & World English

(1743–93), French revolutionary and journalist. A virulent critic of the moderate Girondists, he was instrumental (with Danton and Robespierre) in their fall from power in 1793

Sartre, Jean-Paul British & World English

(1905–80), French philosopher, novelist, dramatist, and critic. A leading existentialist, he dealt in his work with the nature of human life and the structures of consciousness. He refused the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1964. Notable works: Nausée (novel, 1938), Being and Nothingness (treatise, 1943), and Huis clos (play, 1944)

Barrault, Jean-Louis British & World English

(1910–94), French actor and director. He directed a number of films, and appeared in Les Enfants du Paradis (1945)

Bokassa, Jean Bédel British & World English

(1921–96), African statesman and military leader, President 1972-6 of the Central African Republic, self-styled emperor 1976-9

Charcot, Jean-Martin British & World English

(1825–93), French neurologist, regarded as one of the founders of modern neurology. He established links between neurological conditions and particular lesions in the central nervous system. His work on hysteria was taken up by his pupil Sigmund Freud

Greuze, Jean-Baptiste British & World English

(1725–1805), French painter, noted for his genre paintings and portraits

Joliot, Jean-Frédéric British & World English

(1900–58), French nuclear physicist. As Marie Curie’s assistant at the Radium Institute he worked with her daughter Irène (1897–1956), whom he married (taking the name Joliot-Curie); together they discovered artificial radioactivity. Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1935, shared with his wife)

Lully, Jean-Baptiste British & World English

(1632–87), French composer, born in Italy; Italian name Giovanni Battista Lulli. His operas, which include Alceste (1674) and Armide (1686), mark the beginning of the French operatic tradition

Noverre, Jean-Georges British & World English

(1727–1810), French choreographer and dance theorist, who stressed the importance of dramatic motivation in ballet as opposed to technical virtuosity

Perrin, Jean Baptiste British & World English

(1870–1942), French physical chemist. He provided the definitive proof of the existence of atoms, proved that cathode rays are negatively charged, and investigated Brownian motion. Nobel Prize for Physics (1926)

Rameau, Jean-Philippe British & World English

(1683–1764), French composer, musical theorist, and organist. He is best known for his four volumes of harpsichord pieces (1706–41), which are noted for their bold harmonies and textural diversity

Watteau, Jean Antoine British & World English

(1684–1721), French painter, of Flemish descent. An initiator of the rococo style, he is also known for his invention of the fête galante

Aristide, Jean-Bertrand British & World English

(1953-), Haitian president 1991, 1994–96, and 2001–04. He led a movement against the dictatorship of Duvalier in the 1980s and was elected president of Haiti in 1990, but was forced into exile 1991–94 by a military coup. US troops facilitated his return, and he served as president 1994–96 and 2001–04, when he was again forced into exile

Blanchard, Jean Pierre British & World English

(1753–1809), French balloonist; full name Jean-Pierre François Blanchard. He made the first crossing of the English Channel by air, flying by balloon, on 7 January 1785

Colbert, Jean Baptiste British & World English

(1619–83), French statesman, chief minister to Louis XIV 1665–83. He was responsible for reforming the country’s finances and the navy, and for boosting industry and commerce

Fragonard, Jean-Honoré British & World English

(1732–1806), French painter in the rococo style. He is famous for landscapes and for erotic canvases such as The Progress of Love (1771)

Fresnel, Augustin Jean British & World English

(1788–1827), French physicist and civil engineer. He correctly postulated that light has a wave-like motion transverse to the direction of propagation, contrary to the longitudinal direction suggested by Christiaan Huygens and Thomas Young

La Bruyère, Jean de British & World English

(1645–96), French writer and moralist. He is known for his Caractères (1688), based on a translation of the Characters of Theophrastus and exposing the vanity and corruption of human behaviour by satirizing Parisian society

La Fontaine, Jean de British & World English

(1621–95), French poet. He is chiefly remembered for his Fables (1668–94), drawn from oriental, classical, and contemporary sources

Lyotard, Jean-François British & World English

(1924–98), French philosopher and literary critic. He outlined his ‘philosophy of desire’, based on the politics of Nietzsche, in L'Économie libidinale (1974). In later books he adopted a postmodern quasi-Wittgensteinian linguistic philosophy

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques British & World English

(1712–78), French philosopher and writer, born in Switzerland. He believed that civilization warps the fundamental goodness of human nature, but that the ill effects can be moderated by active participation in democratic consensual politics. Notable works: Émile (1762) and The Social Contract (1762)

Champollion, Jean-François British & World English

(1790–1832), French Egyptologist. A pioneer in the study of ancient Egypt, he is best known for his success in deciphering some of the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone in 1822

d'Alembert, Jean le Rond British & World English

(1717–83), French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. His most famous work was the Traité de dynamique (1743), in which he developed his own laws of motion. From 1746 to 1758 he was Diderot’s chief collaborator on the Encyclopédie

Lamarck, Jean Baptiste de British & World English

(1744–1829), French naturalist. He was an early proponent of organic evolution, although his theory is not widely accepted today. He suggested that species could have evolved from each other by small changes in their structure, and that the mechanism of such change (not now generally considered possible) was that characteristics acquired in order to survive could be passed on to offspring

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