The fact or phenomenon of light, radio waves, etc. being deflected in passing obliquely through the interface between one medium and another or through a medium of varying density
= molar refractivity.
= transit-circle (now historical and rare).
An error caused by refraction; (Ophthalmology) a refractive error of the eye.
= refractive index.
Division of a single incident light ray or other electromagnetic wave into two separate rays in an anisotropic medium
The refraction of elastic waves on passing between formations of rock having different seismic velocities
Profiling of underground features by means of refraction shooting.
Seismic prospecting based on the travel time of shock waves generated at the earth's surface and moving nearly parallel to the bedding on a long base line, providing information on underground geological structure on a larger scale.
The angle made by a refracted ray with a perpendicular to the refracting surface