16 Illustrations and artwork
16.4 Line and tone artwork: hard copy
Traditionally, publishers recognize two main types of illustration: line artwork and tone artwork, both of which may be black and white or colour. Final illustrations may be combinations of line and tone artwork.
• Line illustrations can be graphs, charts, plans, maps, pen-and-ink drawings, woodcuts/etchings or musical scores—typically, any illustration that has no continuous tone and cannot be typeset.
• Continuous tone illustrations are usually photographs, but may also be drawn and painted artwork. To simulate the subtle transitions of tone in print, the picture is broken up into a series of dots (half-tone). This was formerly done by screening; however, developments in digital reproduction technology enabling the production of print-ready material mean that this process has been largely superseded.
The distinction between line and tone illustrations has important consequences when creating digital artwork files (see
16.4.1 Submitting original hard copies
Hard copy may be submitted only if it is not possible for an author to create digital artwork from existing material (through scanning or digital photography; see
• Line artwork should be clear and crisply defined, mounted on card.
• Glossy photographic prints with good contrast produce the best results.
• Present slides as 35 mm (mounted) or larger-format colour transparencies.
• Previously screened illustrations and photocopies reproduce poorly.
Reductions/enlargements should be indicated as a percentage (e.g. ‘67 per cent’ indicates a reduction of the artwork to 67 per cent of its original size—not reduced by 67 per cent).
Any relabelling and cropping should be marked on a photocopy—the original may be scanned to capture the image without redrawing from scratch. Supply an accompanying text file for each label. Avoid making any marks on the original.
Present a composite illustration with more than one part as individual pieces of artwork, clearly identified and accompanied by a photocopy showing the desired layout.
Identify all artwork with the title of the work and identification number, and include name/address details to enable the publisher to return the (often valuable) artwork. Originals should be securely packaged.