18 Bibliography

18.5 Citations to support author–date referencing

As explained in 18.1.1 and in Chapter 17, where the author–date referencing method is in use, bibliographic citations are reconfigured so that the publication date appears at the head after the author’s name (this is the formula that the reader, trying to trace a work referenced in the text, will seek):

Lakoff, R. (1975). Language and Women’s Place. New York: Harper and Row.

A reference list in this system is ordered:

  • • alphabetically by author (for complications where multiple authors are named see 18.1.3)

  • • multiple works by a single author (or by the same combination of authors) are ordered chronologically by year of publication

  • • multiple works by the same author(s) published in the same year are ordered alphabetically by title, ignoring definite and indefinite articles.

Author–date references in the text must be able to identify each work uniquely by means of the author’s surname and date of publication alone. Where more than one work by a particular author or authors is published in a single year, it follows that some further identifier is needed to distinguish them. In this case the dates of publication are supplemented by lower-case letters, which are used in the in-text references:

Lyons, J. (1981a), Language and Linguistics: An Introduction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Lyons, J. (1981b), Language, Meaning and Context (London: Fontana Paperbacks).

The letters are allocated according to the order in the reference list.

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New Hart's Rules


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