- 1 [connected/associated] estrechamente we are closely related somos parientes cercanos those ideas are closely related esas ideas están muy relacionadas entre sí or muy emparentadas they worked closely with the French trabajaron en estrecha colaboración con los franceses
- 2 2.1 (densely) [written] con letra apretada a closely woven fabric un tejido muy tupido or de trama muy cerrada we were very closely packed in the taxi íbamos muy apretados en el taxi the room was closely packed la habitación estaba atestada de gente 2.2 (precisely) [reasoned/defined] rigurosamente
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Spain's War of Independence against Napoleon Bonaparte's French occupation was ignited by the popular revolt in Madrid on 2 May 1808 against the French army. With support from the Duke of Wellington, Spanish resistance continued for over five years in a guerra de guerrillas which gave the world the concept and the term guerrilla warfare. The autocratic Fernando VII was restored to the throne in 1814, and his first act was to abolish the progressive Constitution of Cadiz adopted in 1812.