Translation of gruff in Spanish:
adjective/adjetivo (-er, -est)
- [voice] áspero, bronco; [manner/reply] bruscoExample sentences
- He suddenly felt a rough rope around his neck and a gruff voice said to him, ‘Let go of the globe.’
- Dave has a big, deep, booming gruff voice - that sounds like he gargles with gravel every single morning.
- He'd been traveling all day and was looking for a good place to make camp when he heard the gruff voices laughing and talking loudly.
- I responded nay, three times nay, though my manner had become rather gruff, and I was curt with them.
- It is his kind, if rather terse and gruff manner that has turned his shop into an excellent meeting place for people and ideas.
- His gruff manner always belied a kindness in him that all his close friends knew he had.
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Spain's 1978 Constitution granted areas of competence competencias to each of the autonomous regions it created. It also established that these could be modified by agreements, called estatutos de autonomía or just estatutos, between central government and each of the autonomous regions. The latter do not affect the competencias of central government which controls the army, etc. For example, Navarre, the Basque Country and Catalonia have their own police forces and health services, and collect taxes on behalf of central government. Navarre has its own civil law system, fueros, and can levy taxes which are different to those in the rest of Spain. In 2006, Andalusia, Valencia and Catalonia renegotiated their estatutos. The Catalan Estatut was particularly contentious.