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Pronunciation: /rʌf/

Translation of rough in Spanish:

adjective/adjetivo (-er, -est)

  • 1 1.1 (not smooth) [surface/texture/skin] áspero, rugoso; [cloth] basto; [hands] áspero, basto to take the rough with the smooth estar* a las duras y a las maduras
    Example sentences
    • The next day I placed the figure upright on a piece of 400 grit sandpaper and smoothed out the rough surface of the putty.
    • I could feel the movement, the change in the vibrations as iron-bound wheels went from a rough surface to a smoother one and then back to the former.
    • Mold spores adhere more tightly to the rough surfaces than to the smooth skin of undamaged kernels.
    1.2 (uneven) [ground/road] desigual, lleno de baches; [terrain] agreste, escabroso 1.3 [sea] agitado, picado, encrespado; [weather] tempestuoso, tormentoso we had a rough crossing el barco se movió mucho durante la travesía
    Example sentences
    • We heard that the sea was rough over the Channel and did not expect you until the end of the week.
    • I do not think the man will come today; the seas are rough, and the horizon shows more storms to come.
    • ‘This does not bode well with me,’ James said as he held his rifle as though it were a life preserver in rough seas.
    1.4 [sound/voice] áspero, ronco; [wine] áspero
    Example sentences
    • When he spoke, his voice was rough and husky, barely above a whisper.
    • Unable to even squint at the harsh light, her voice was rough and dry.
    • Jeffrey's voice was rough and his words were harsh but Anthony remained calm and cool, save his eyes.
    Example sentences
    • After eight hours, we had gone solo and had splendid dog fights over the moors, huge fun, especially after two pints of rough cider!
    • It is a lusty, even rough blend of Grenache, Syrah and Carignan.
    • The rough red Italian vino was on the table for every meal and we drank it instead of water, not being too certain of the purity of the ship's drinking water.
    Example sentences
    • He looked like hell; clearly this had been rough on him.
    • The elderly couple had been closer to her than her father had ever been, and they were the only people she considered her family, but the winter had been rough on them.
    • The Way of the Shield is a tough way, with pitfalls, blind corners, and - at times - it is rough on the one who treads the path.
  • 2 [colloquial/familiar] 2.1 (unpleasant, hard) [life/existence] duro she had a rough time of it when she was young lo pasó muy mal cuando era joven to be rough on sb ser* duro con algn don't be too rough on the kid no seas duro con el chico the critics have been rough on her recent work la crítica ha sido dura con sus últimas obras it's a bit rough on her to be left with all the responsibility es un poco injusto que le dejen toda la responsabilidad a ella 2.2 (ill) he feels a bit rough today hoy no está muy bien, hoy se siente bastante mal
    Example sentences
    • I have to admit it excited me the way he was rough and aggressive.
    • He was a rough man, but out of his venality and his bestial nature erupted this divine expression on the canvas.
    • It was a busy day and the rough customers were more than a little rowdy that evening.
    Example sentences
    • All right, I understand that you've had a rough time, but there is no way you're finding out my past on these conditions.
    • She looked like she'd had a rough time, and there was a three-foot-thick solid wall a mile high around her heart.
    • If this was the explanation, then they could be in for a rough time.
  • 3 (not gentle) [child/game] brusco; [neighborhood] peligroso you'll break the doll if you're too rough with it vas a romper la muñeca si no la tratas con más cuidado she got a rough handling from her interviewers los entrevistadores le tiraron a matar we want a clean game, no rough stuff [colloquial/familiar] queremos que jueguen limpio, nada de violencia
    Example sentences
    • Kim thought for a moment and then remembered what Rosie had said about wanting her baby to grow up in a loving family and not on some rough London estate.
    • Living in a relatively rough part of town, I wasn't allowed out an awful lot.
    • It is a very rough place and rarely does anyone from this area go there.
  • 4 4.1 (crude, unpolished) [peasant] tosco, rudo a rough sketch un esbozo a rough draft un borrador all rough working must be shown se debe entregar todos los borradores rough paper/book (British English/inglés británico) papel (masculine)/cuaderno (masculine) de borrador precious stones in their rough state piedras preciosas en bruto it was rough justice el castigo fue duro pero justo or merecido 4.2 (approximate) [calculation/estimate/translation] aproximado can you give me a rough idea how much it'll cost? ¿me puede dar más o menos una idea de lo que costará? it would take six months, at a rough guess calculo que llevaría unos seis meses más o menos or aproximadamente
    Example sentences
    • We may perceive effects as real but they are in no way approaching even a rough approximation of reality and probably never will.
    • Based on a rough approximation of the time, probably he'd be eating - bran cereal and fresh juice, the same every morning.
    • In a rough approximation, it works the same way as lint, and lint's users will need very little time to understand how to use it.
    Example sentences
    • Throw together a rough prototype to bounce off users.
    • He was standing frozen in the doorway, a rough sack of belongings slung over his shoulder.
    • Drake grabbed a handful of his hair and twisted cruelly just as he finished tying off the rough bandage.
    Example sentences
    • Yet delicacy is not defeated, and this ambiguity in Jansons's paint handling - is it rough or is it refined?
    • Ultimately this scheme has to do with the architects' pleasure in materials and light, and in juxtaposition of the rough and refined.
    • They spoke together in their own rough language for a while before Rastif brought Sanchen over to them.


  • 1.1 [sleep] [ a la intemperie o sin las comodidades más básicas ] he'd been sleeping rough for over a week llevaba más de una semana durmiendo donde podía or sin tener donde pasar la noche 1.2 (violently) if he won't agree, they'll play it rough si no acepta, se van a poner duros to cut up rough [colloquial/familiar] ponerse* hecho una fiera [colloquial/familiar]


  • 2 (hooligan) (British English/inglés británico) matón, (masculine, feminine), gamberro, (masculine, feminine) (Spain/España) she likes a bit of rough [colloquial/familiar] le gustan los machotes rudos [colloquial/familiar]

transitive verb/verbo transitivo

  • to rough it [colloquial/familiar] pasar sin comodidades

Phrasal verbs

rough in

verb + object + adverb, verb + adverb + object/verbo + complemento + adverbio, verbo + adverbio + complemento
[figures/shapes] bosquejar, esbozar*

rough out

verb + object + adverb, verb + adverb + object/verbo + complemento + adverbio, verbo + adverbio + complemento
[drawing] bosquejar, esbozar*, hacer* un bosquejo or esbozo de; [speech/schedule] preparar en borrador

rough up

verb + object + adverb, verb + adverb + object/verbo + complemento + adverbio, verbo + adverbio + complemento
[colloquial/familiar] darle* una paliza a

Definition of rough in:

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