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Cultural Note: Risorgimento
This is the name given to the historic period of struggle for independence and Italian unity from its first movements (1820-21, 1831) to the insurrections and wars 1848-66. The major events were the three wars of independence against the Austro-Hungarians (1848-49, 1859 and 1866) and the expedition of Garibaldi's Thousand in 1860. The moderate monarchist line prevailed over the republican revolutionary tendency of Giuseppe Mazzini, and the House of Savoy took the throne of Italy in 1861. Rome became the capital in 1871.
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