the name of eight kings of England. Henry I (1068–1135), youngest son of William I; reigned 1100–35. He conquered Normandy in 1105. Henry II (1133–89), son of Matilda; reigned 1154–89. The first Plantagenet king, he restored order and extended his kingdom. Henry III (1207–72), son of John; reigned 1216–72. Henry IV (1367–1413), son of John of Gaunt; reigned 1399–1413; known as Henry Bolingbroke. He overthrew Richard II, establishing the Lancastrian dynasty. Henry V (1387–1422), son of Henry IV; reigned 1413–22. He renewed the Hundred Years War soon after coming to the throne and defeated the French at Agincourt in 1415. Henry VI (1421–71), son of Henry V; reigned 1422–61 and 1470–71. Henry VII (1457–1509), the first Tudor king; son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond; reigned 1485–1509; known as Henry Tudor. He defeated Richard III at Bosworth Field and eventually established an unchallenged Tudor dynasty. Henry VIII (1491–1547), son of Henry VII; reigned 1509–47. Henry had six wives (Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, Katherine Parr) and three children (Mary I, with Catherine of Aragon; Elizabeth I, with Anne Boleyn; and Edward VI, with Jane Seymour). His first divorce, from Catherine of Aragon, was opposed by the pope, leading to England’s break with the Roman Catholic Church.