( 1874–1964), 31st president of the US 1929–33; full name Herbert Clark Hoover. After serving as secretary of commerce 1921–29 under Presidents Harding and Coolidge, he was elected to the presidency on the Republican ballot. As president, he was faced with the long-term problems of the Depression. Unable to keep his campaign promise of prosperity and to improve his poor record in international affairs, he was defeated by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932.
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