A form of calculus applied to expressions or functions in which the law relating the quantities is liable to variation, especially to find what relation between the variables makes an integral a maximum or a minimum.
- He has interests in differential equations, the calculus of variations, and functions of a real variable which he would work on for the rest of his life.
- There he taught courses on advanced algebra, the calculus of variations, mechanics, Fourier series, and synthetic geometry.
- In mathematics he worked on the calculus of variations, Fourier series, function spaces, Hamiltonian geometrical optics, Schrödinger wave mechanics, and relativity.
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