The decay-resistant outer coating of a pollen grain or spore. It typically bears a highly characteristic surface pattern that is used in palynology.
- Orbicules may be attached to the exine of the pollen grains.
- Short elongated elements occur on the orbicule wall, similar to those present on the pollen exine.
- This study concentrates on these parameters using purified exines (sporopollenin capsules) prepared from pine pollen, which consist of a central capsule and two lateral sacci.
Late 19th century: perhaps from ex-2 'out' + Greek is, in- 'fiber'.
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