Fine-grained sedimentary rock from which oil can be extracted.
- Beneath the main White Stone Band there is an interval of mudstone and bituminous mudstone with a further thicker (10 cm, lower oil shale) oil shale.
- Gibling interpreted the assemblage of mudstone, coal and oil shale in the Cenozoic basins of Thailand as the product of deposition in environments where lake levels fluctuated.
- Carbonaceous shale, including oil shale, occurs in beds of clayey to silty mudrock from 0.3 to 3 m thick.
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