Denoting a steelmaking process in which the charge is laid on a hearth in a shallow furnace and heated by burning gas.
- Coreless and channel induction furnaces, crucible and open-hearth reverberatory furnaces fired by natural gas or fuel oil, and electric resistance and electric radiation furnaces are all in routine use.
- The manufacture of steel was made possible by two new inventions, the Bessemer converter of 1856 and the Siemens-Martin open-hearth furnace of 1864.
- A plaque placed beside the mural, Spirit of Steel, notes that the scene depicts the entire steel manufacturing process, from the mining of coal and ore to the making of steel in open-hearth furnaces, to the finished steel shaft.
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