A genus name often applied to robust fossil hominids first found in South Africa in 1938.
- Australopithecus robustus and A. (or Zinjanthropus) boisei, family Hominidae. See Australopithecus.
- A big-jawed and relatively small-brained hominid known as Paranthropus consumed mainly nuts and other hard foods, causing it to die out as these resources became scarce in African habitats.
- Hominidae, the mammalian family that includes modern humans and their immediately extinct ancestors, contains four genera: Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Homo.
- The semicircular canal dimensions in crania from southern Africa attributed to Australopithecus and Paranthropus resemble those of the extant great apes.
Modern Latin, from Greek para- (expressing relationship) + anthrōpos 'man'.
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