A method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
- More recently investigators have used scientific methods such as careful observation and hypothesis testing to propose several different theories to account for abnormal behaviour.
- Astronomers and geophysicists are now trying to use satellite images and other scientific methods to test their model of how the Earth works.
- Cayley, who published his findings in 1809 and 1810, systemised research into aviation using scientific methods and the observation of bird flight.
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