The surgical cutting of a sympathetic nerve or removal of a ganglion to relieve a condition affected by its stimulation.
- Before 1953, procedures such as stellate ganglion block, cervical sympathectomy, thrombectomy of occluded carotid arteries, and carotid bifurcation ligation, were used.
- If opiate analgesia remains inadequate, then lumbar sympathectomy (surgical or chemical) or spinal cord stimulation may help.
- For very resistant and distressing cases, where all other treatments fail, a surgical procedure called thoracoscopic sympathectomy is available.
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