The geographical separation of a population, typically by a physical barrier such as a mountain range or river, resulting in a pair of closely related species.
- The biogeographic patterns of vicariance and range expansion may also provide insight to the mechanics of this extinction event.
- Phylogenetic biogeography resolved patterns of both vicariance and geodispersal and revealed that range expansions were more abundant than range contractions in Devonian phyllocarids.
- It also can be used to identify both episodes of vicariance and congruent range expansion (geo-dispersal) that allow biogeographic patterns to be considered in the context of tectonic and climatic change.
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