1.1 Ludwig I (1786–1868), reigned 1825–48. He became unpopular due to his reactionary policies, lavish expenditure, and his domination by the dancer Lola Montez, and he was forced to abdicate in favour of his son.
1.2 Ludwig II (1845–86), reigned 1864–86. A patron of the arts, he became a recluse and built a series of elaborate castles. He was declared insane and deposed in 1886.