- (also Neanderthal man) an extinct species of human that was widely distributed in ice-age Europe between circa 120,000 and 35,000 years ago, with a receding forehead and prominent brow ridges. The Neanderthals were associated with the Mousterian flint industry of the Middle Palaeolithic.
- Homo neanderthalensis; now usually regarded as a separate species from H. sapiens and probably at the end of a different evolutionary line
mid 19th century: from Neanderthal, the name of a region in Germany (now Neandertal) where remains of Neanderthal man were found
Remember that Neanderthal begins with a capital N and ends with -thal.