A steel-making process, now largely superseded, in which carbon, silicon, and other impurities are removed from molten pig iron by oxidation in a blast of air in a special tilting retort (a Bessemer converter).
- For example, in 1850 the steel making industry was drastically changed by the Bessemer process which burned out impurities in iron through the use of a blast furnace.
- The Bessemer process of steelmaking - which Carnegie was the first to use - produced vast quantities of hard, durable metal at low cost.
- The Bessemer process, patented in 1855, made mild steel a cheap and superior rival for wrought and cast iron in some products.
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