A large solitary black bee with purplish wings, which nests in tunnels bored in dead wood or plant stems.
- Genus Xylocopa, family Apidae: several species
- The most detailed studies of facultative sociality in bees have focused on the large carpenter bee Xylocopa pubescens.
- Pollinators of trees in the Brazil nut family include the female carpenter bee, above, shown as she is about to enter the flower of a sapucaia tree.
- The female carpenter bee bores straight in - in this case upward - then makes a number of lateral bores 90 degrees perpendicular to the main bore, to lay her eggs in.
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