1A contributory cause of a disease.
- The causes are clearly different from risk factors, which are the diseases accompanying cofactors.
- Anorectal infections are a potent cofactor for HIV transmission.
- Counseling can be offered to all patients with HCV infection to modify or prevent the adverse effects of cofactors, such as alcohol consumption, on disease progression.
2 Biochemistry A substance (other than the substrate) whose presence is essential for the activity of an enzyme.
- Thiamine pyrophosphate, the active form of vitamin B-1, is a key cofactor of the essential enzymes involved in carbon metabolism.
- Copper is usually utilized in organisms as a cofactor in enzymes or electron transfer proteins that catalyze redox reactions or oxygen chemistry.
- Modifications of proteins that depend upon vitamin C as a cofactor include proline and lysine hydroxylations.
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