- From the brain stem emerge pairs of cranial nerves, analogous to the spinal nerves that innervate the limbs and trunk.
- Occasionally, tumors may develop in the brain, on cranial nerves, or on the spinal cord.
- Cranial nerve palsies of the third, fourth and sixth cranial nerves may occur, affecting extraocular motility.
They are (with conventional Roman numbering) the olfactory (I), optic (II), oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), trigeminal (V), abducens (VI), facial (VII), vestibulocochlear (VIII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X), accessory (XI), and hypoglossal (XII) nerves.
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