Living freely and independently, not as a parasite or attached to a substrate: this copepod is free-living in its larval stages
More example sentences
- Parasitoids are both parasites and free-living predators; they spend part of their lives inside another animal and part on their own.
- The adult parasitoid is free-living, and the main task of females is finding new hosts for the next generation.
- However, exceptionally warm or dry conditions may result in higher mortality rates of the free-living stages of parasites (especially for those with direct life cycles) and offset some of the effects of more rapid development rates.
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