A reddish disc-shaped gall that forms on the undersides of oak leaves in response to the developing larva of a gall wasp. It results from eggs laid in the summer and alternates with the currant gall within the annual cycle.
- The wasp is Neuroterus quercusbaccarum, family Cynipidae
- In autumn flat spangle galls form on the back of leaves, the leaves fall and females emerge next spring.
- Parasitic wasps lay their eggs in leaves, twigs and buds causing galls such as the spangle gall and oak apple.
- Numbers of spangle galls decreased in larger tree populations possibly due to larger numbers of insect parasitoids.
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