A large coniferous North American tree with flattened needles of two different sizes, grown for pulp and as an ornamental.
- Tsuga heterophylla, family Pinaceae.
- Red Crossbills typically inhabit mature conifer forests, and the different types tend to specialize on preferred trees, including western hemlock, lodgepole pine and Engleman spruce.
- Eventually, dwarf mistletoe plants steal enough water, minerals, and nutrients to kill the ponderosa and lodgepole pines, Douglas-firs, western larches, and western hemlocks they attack.
- Closer to the sea, where the terrain is smoother, forests of Sitka spruce and western hemlock have developed.
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