denizen labels

What do you call someone from ——? Often that’s not an easy question to answer, whether it’s a city, state, province, or country. Anyone who lives in Columbus, Ohio—or the other Columbuses in Georgia, Nebraska, and Indiana—is called a Columbusite. But someone from the small town of Columbus, Mississippi, is called a Columbian. Those inconsistencies can be a little confusing, but at least they’re undisputed within a given locale.

Sometimes the authorities can’t agree about a single locale. Someone from Michigan is (formerly by statute) called a Michiganian—but many Michiganians prefer to be called Michiganders. Almost no Michiganians want to be called *Michiganites, but the United States Government Printing Office (which puts out a style manual) specifies *Michiganite. Best for Michiganians and others to follow the law or local preference—not what some stylesheet-writer in Washington says.

Loose guidelines exist for naming denizens. George R. Stewart, a historian and onomastician, developed seven main guidelines—what H.L. Mencken called “Stewart’s Laws of Municipal Onomastics”—that were cited in the best up-to-date work on this subject, Paul Dickson’s Labels for Locals (1997). Here they are: (1) If the place name ends in -a or -ia, add -n <Alaska, Alaskan> <California, Californian>. (2) If the name ends in -i or a sounded -e, add -an <Hawaii, Hawaiian> <Albuquerque, Albuquerquean>. (3) If the name ends in -on, add -ian <Oregon, Oregonian>. (4) If the name ends in -y, change the -y to an -i and add -an <Albany, Albanian>. (5) If the name ends in -o, add -an <Chicago, Chicagoan>. (6) If the name ends in a consonant or a silent -e, add either -ite or -er, depending on euphony <Maine, Mainer> <New Hampshire, New Hampshireite>. (7) If the name ends in -polis, change that to -politan <Minneapolis, Minneapolitan>.

What follows are some of the less obvious forms, in places overriding Dickson’s preferences because additional research showed this to be necessary.

States

Alabama

Alabamian, Alabaman

Alaska

Alaskan

Arizona

Arizonan, Arizonian (rare)

Arkansas

Arkansan, Arkansawyer, Arkie

California

Californian

Colorado

Coloradan, Coloradoan

Connecticut

Nutmegger, Connecticuter (USGPO)

Delaware

Delawarean

Florida

Floridian

Georgia

Georgian

Hawaii

Hawaiian

Idaho

Idahoan

Illinois

Illinoisan /il-ә-noy-әn/ (pref. not Illinoisian)

Indiana

Hoosier, Indianan, ✳Indianian

Iowa

Iowan, Iowegian

Kansas

Kansan

Kentucky

Kentuckian

Louisiana

Louisianian, ✳Louisianan

Maine

Mainer

Maryland

Marylander

Massachusetts

Bay Stater (by state law), Massachusettsan (USGPO)

Michigan

Michigander (by popular consensus), Michiganian (official) ✳Michiganite (rare, but recommended by USGPO)

Minnesota

Minnesotan

Mississippi

Mississippian

Missouri

Missourian

Montana

Montanan

Nebraska

Nebraskan

Nevada

Nevadan

New Hampshire

New Hampshirite

New Jersey

New Jerseyan, New Jerseyite (USGPO)

New Mexico

New Mexican

New York

New Yorker

North Carolina

North Carolinian, Tarheel

North Dakota

North Dakotan

Ohio

Ohioan

Oklahoma

Oklahoman, Sooner, Okie

Oregon

Oregonian

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvanian

Rhode Island

Rhode Islander

South Carolina

South Carolinian

South Dakota

South Dakotan

Tennessee

Tennessean, Tennesseean

Texas

Texan

Utah

Utahn (preferred), Utahan

Vermont

Vermonter

Virginia

Virginian

Washington

Washingtonian

West Virginia

West Virginian

Wisconsin

Wisconsinite

Wyoming

Wyomingite

U.S. Cities

Akron

Akronite

Albany

Albanian

Albuquerque

Albuquerquean, Albuquerquian

Anchorage

Anchorageite, Anchoragite

Annapolis

Annapolitan

Austin

Austinite

Baltimore

Baltimorean

Boston

Bostonian

Buffalo

Buffalonian

Cambridge

Cantabrigian

Canton, Ohio

Cantonian

Chicago

Chicagoan

Cincinnati

Cincinnatian

Cleveland

Clevelander

Columbus (Ga., Ind.,Neb., Ohio)

Columbusite

Columbus (Miss.)

Columbian

Corpus Christi

Corpus Christian

Detroit

Detroiter

District of Columbia

Washingtonian

Dodge City

Dodge Citian

El Paso

El Pasoan

Fairbanks

Fairbanksan, Fairbanksian

Fort Worth

Fort Worthian, Fort Worther

Grand Rapids

Grand Rapidian

Greensboro, N.C.

Greensburgher

Hanover, Pa.

Hanoverian

Harrisburg

Harrisburger

Honolulu

Honolulan

Houston

Houstonian

Independence, Mo.

Independent

Indianapolis

Indianapolitan

Jackson

Jacksonian

Jersey City

Jersey Cityite

Kansas City

Kansas Citian

Knoxville

Knoxvillian

Las Cruces

Crucen

Las Vegas

Las Vegan

Lawrence, Kan.

Lawrentian

Lawrence, Mass.

Lawrencian

Lebanon, Pa.

Lebanonian

Los Angeles

Angeleno, ✳Los Angelean

Louisville

Louisvillian

Madison

Madisonian

Manhattan (N.Y. or Kan.)

Manhattanite

Maui

Mauian

Memphis

Memphian

Miami

Miamian

Milwaukee

Milwaukeean

Minneapolis

Minneapolitan

Nashville

Nashvillian

Newark

Newarker

New Orleans

New Orleanian, New Orleansian

New York City

New Yorker

Oklahoma City

Oklahoma Cityan, ✳Oklahoma Citian

Omaha

Omahan

Palm Beach

Palm Beacher

Pensacola

Pensacolian

Philadelphia

Philadelphian

Phoenix

Phoenician

Pittsburgh

Pittsburgher

Pontiac

Pontiacker

Portland

Portlander

Princeton

Princetonian

Providence

Providentian

Sacramento

Sacramentan

Saginaw

Saginawian

Salt Lake City

Salt Laker

San Antonio

San Antonian

San Diego

San Diegan

San Francisco

San Franciscan

San Jose

San Josean

Santa Fe

Santa Fean

Saratoga Springs

Saratogian

Saugus

Saugonian

Sault Sainte Marie

Sooite

Savannah

Savannahian

Schenectady

Schenectadian

Seattle

Seattleite, ✳Seattlite

Shreveport

Shreveporter

Spokane

Spokanite

St. Louis

St. Louisan

St. Paul

St. Paulite

Tallahassee

Tallahasseean

Tampa

Tampan

Taos

Taoseno

Troy

Trojan

Tucson

Tucsonan, Tucsonian, Tucsonite

Twin Cities

Twin Citian

Wilkes-Barre

Wilkes-Barrean

Williamsport

Williamsporter

Countries

Afghanistan

Afghan

Argentina

Argentine, Argentinian

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijani

Bahamas

Bahamian

Belarus

Belarusian, Belarusan

Belgium

Belgian

Cayman Islands

Caymanian, Cayman Islander

China

Chinese

Colombia

Colombian

Czech Republic

Czech

Denmark

Dane

Egypt

Egyptian

El Salvador

Salvadoran (AmE), Salvadorian (BrE)

England

English

Finland

Finn, Finnish, Finlander

France

French

Germany

German

Great Britain

Briton

Greece

Greek

Greenland

Greenlander

Grenada

Grenadian, Grenadan

Guam

Guamanian

Guyana

Guyanese

Haiti

Haitian

Honduras

Honduran

Hungary

Hungarian

Indonesia

Indonesian

Iran

Iranian

Iraq

Iraqi

Ireland

Irish

Israel

Israeli

Italy

Italian

Jamaica

Jamaican

Japan

Japanese

Jordan

Jordanian

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstani

Kenya

Kenyan

Korea

Korean

Kuwait

Kuwaiti

Laos

Lao, Laotian

Lebanon

Lebanese

Libya

Libyan

Liechtenstein

Liechtensteiner

Luxembourg

Luxembourger

Macedonia

Macedonian

Madagascar

Malagasy

Malaysia

Malaysian

Maldova

Maldovan

Mali

Malian

Malta

Maltese

Martinique

Martiniquais

Mexico

Mexican

Micronesia

Micronesian

Monaco

Monegasque, ✳Monacan

Mongolia

Mongolian

Morocco

Moroccan

Myanmar

Burmese, Myanmarese

Nepal

Nepalese

The Netherlands

Netherlander, Hollander, Netherlandian

New Zealand

New Zealander

Nicaragua

Nicaraguan

Niger

Nigerien

Nigeria

Nigerian

Norway

Norwegian

Oman

Omani

Pakistan

Pakistani

Palau

Palauan

Panama

Panamanian

Paraguay

Paraguayan

Peru

Peruvian

Philippines

Filipino

Poland

Pole

Portugal

Portuguese

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rican

Qatar

Qatari

Romania

Romanian

Russia

Russian

Rwanda

Rwandan

San Marino

Sammarinese, San Marinese

Saudi Arabia

Saudi, Saudi Arabian

Scotland

Scot

Senegal

Senegalese

Seychelles

Seychellois

Singapore

Singaporean

Slovakia

Slovak

Slovenia

Slovene

Somalia

Somali

South Africa

South African

Spain

Spaniard

Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan, Ceylonese

Sudan

Sudanese

Sumatra

Sumatran

Turkey

Turk

Turkmenistan

Turkmen (pl. Turkmens)

Uganda

Ugandan

Ukraine

Ukrainian

United States

American

Uruguay

Uruguayan

Uzbekistan

Uzbek

Vanuatu

Ni-Vanuatu

Venezuela

Venezuelan

Vietnam

Vietnamese

Virgin Islands

Virgin Islander

Wales

Welsh

Zambia

Zambian

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwean

Foreign Cities and Regions

Alberta, Canada

Albertan

Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Amsterdammer

Athens, Greece

Athenian

Baghdad, Iraq

Baghdadi

Bangkok, Thailand

Bangkokian

Béarn, France

Béarnais (not Béarnaise)

Beijing, China

Beijinger

Belgrade, Yugoslavia

Belgrader

Berlin, Germany

Berliner

Bern, Switzerland

Bernese

Birmingham, England

Brummie

Bogotá, Colombia

Bogotano

Bologna, Italy

Bolognese

Bordeaux, France

Bordelais

British Columbia, Canada

British Columbian

Brussels, Belgium

Bruxellois

Budapest, Hungary

Budapestiek

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Porteño

Cairo, Egypt

Cairene

Cambridge, England

Cantabrigian

Canton, China

Cantonese

Cheshire, England

Cestrian

Copenhagen, Denmark

Copenhagener

Cornwall, England

Cornish

Devonshire, England

Devonian

Dijon, France

Dijonese

Dublin, Ireland

Dubliner

Dundee, Scotland

Dundonian

Edinburgh, Scotland

Edinburgher

Exeter, England

Exonian

Flanders, Belgium

Flemish

Florence, Italy

Florentine

Fontainebleau, France

Bellifontain

Geneva, Switzerland

Genevan, Genevese

Genoa, Italy

Genovese, Genoan

Glasgow, Scotland

Glaswegian

Halifax, Nova Scotia

Haligonian

Hamburg, Germany

Hamburger

Hampshire, England

Hantsian

Hanover, Germany

Hanoverian

Havana, Cuba

Havanan

Helsinki, Finland

Helsinkian

Hong Kong, China

Hong Konger, ✳Hong Kongite, ✳Hong Kongian

Isle of Man, England

Manx

Isle of Wight, England

Vectian

Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbullu

Jerusalem, Israel

Jerusalemite

Johannesburg, S. Africa

Johannesburger

Lima, Peru

Limeño

Lisbon, Portugal

Lisboan

Liverpool, England

Liverpudlian

London, England

Londoner

Lyons, France

Lyonnais

Madrid, Spain

Madrileno

Majorca, Spain

Majorcan

Manchester, England

Mancunian

Manila, Philippines

Manilite

Manitoba, Canada

Manitoban

Melbourne, Australia

Melburnian

Metz, France

Messin

Mexico City, Mexico

Chilango

Milan, Italy

Milanese

Montenegro, Yugoslavia

Montenegrin

Moscow, Russia

Muscovite

Naples, Italy

Neapolitan

Nazareth, Israel

Nazarene

New Brunswick, Canada

New Brunswicker

Newcastle, Australia

Novocastrian

Newcastle, England

Geordie

Newfoundland, Canada

Newfoundlander, Newfie

New South Wales, Australia

New South Welshman

Nice, France

Niçois

Norfolk, England

North Anglian

Northumberland, England

Northumbrian

Nova Scotia, Canada

Nova Scotian

Ontario, Canada

Ontarian

Oxford, England

Oxonian

Paris, France

Parisian

Prague, Czech Republic

Praguer

Prince Edward Island, Canada

Prince Edward Islander

Quebec, Canada

Quebecer

Quito, Ecuador

Quiteño

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Carioca

Rome, Italy

Roman

Saint-Cloud, France

Clodoaldien

Salzburg, Austria

Salzburger

San Juan, Puerto Rico

San Juanero

Santiago, Chile

Santiaguino

Sao Paulo, Brazil

Paulista

Saskatchewan, Canada

Saskatchewanian

Serbia, Yugoslavia

Serb

Shanghai, China

Shanghailander

Shropshire, England

Salopian

St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

Cruzan

Stockholm, Sweden

Stockholmer

St. Petersburg, Russia

St. Petersburger

Stratford-on-Avon, England

Stratfordian

Sydney, Australia

Sydneysider

Tangier, Morocco

Tangerine

Tasmania, Australia

Tasmanian

Tehran, Iran

Tehrani

Tel Aviv, Israel

Tel Avivian

The Hague, Netherlandse Hague, Netherlands

Hagenaar

Tokyo, Japan

Tokyoite

Toronto, Canada

Torontonian

Tripoli, Libya

Tripolitan

Trois-Rivières, Canada

Trifl uvien uvien

Vancouver, Canada

Vancouverite

Venice, Italy

Venetian

Verona, Italy

Veronese

Vienna, Austria

Viennese

Winnipeg, Canada

Winnipegger

States

Alabama

Alabamian, Alabaman

Alaska

Alaskan

Arizona

Arizonan, Arizonian (rare)

Arkansas

Arkansan, Arkansawyer, Arkie

California

Californian

Colorado

Coloradan, Coloradoan

Connecticut

Nutmegger, Connecticuter (USGPO)

Delaware

Delawarean

Florida

Floridian

Georgia

Georgian

Hawaii

Hawaiian

Idaho

Idahoan

Illinois

Illinoisan /il-ә-noy-әn/ (pref. not Illinoisian)

Indiana

Hoosier, Indianan, ✳Indianian

Iowa

Iowan, Iowegian

Kansas

Kansan

Kentucky

Kentuckian

Louisiana

Louisianian, ✳Louisianan

Maine

Mainer

Maryland

Marylander

Massachusetts

Bay Stater (by state law), Massachusettsan (USGPO)

Michigan

Michigander (by popular consensus), Michiganian (official) ✳Michiganite (rare, but recommended by USGPO)

Minnesota

Minnesotan

Mississippi

Mississippian

Missouri

Missourian

Montana

Montanan

Nebraska

Nebraskan

Nevada

Nevadan

New Hampshire

New Hampshirite

New Jersey

New Jerseyan, New Jerseyite (USGPO)

New Mexico

New Mexican

New York

New Yorker

North Carolina

North Carolinian, Tarheel

North Dakota

North Dakotan

Ohio

Ohioan

Oklahoma

Oklahoman, Sooner, Okie

Oregon

Oregonian

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvanian

Rhode Island

Rhode Islander

South Carolina

South Carolinian

South Dakota

South Dakotan

Tennessee

Tennessean, Tennesseean

Texas

Texan

Utah

Utahn (preferred), Utahan

Vermont

Vermonter

Virginia

Virginian

Washington

Washingtonian

West Virginia

West Virginian

Wisconsin

Wisconsinite

Wyoming

Wyomingite

U.S. Cities

Akron

Akronite

Albany

Albanian

Albuquerque

Albuquerquean, Albuquerquian

Anchorage

Anchorageite, Anchoragite

Annapolis

Annapolitan

Austin

Austinite

Baltimore

Baltimorean

Boston

Bostonian

Buffalo

Buffalonian

Cambridge

Cantabrigian

Canton, Ohio

Cantonian

Chicago

Chicagoan

Cincinnati

Cincinnatian

Cleveland

Clevelander

Columbus (Ga., Ind.,Neb., Ohio)

Columbusite

Columbus (Miss.)

Columbian

Corpus Christi

Corpus Christian

Detroit

Detroiter

District of Columbia

Washingtonian

Dodge City

Dodge Citian

El Paso

El Pasoan

Fairbanks

Fairbanksan, Fairbanksian

Fort Worth

Fort Worthian, Fort Worther

Grand Rapids

Grand Rapidian

Greensboro, N.C.

Greensburgher

Hanover, Pa.

Hanoverian

Harrisburg

Harrisburger

Honolulu

Honolulan

Houston

Houstonian

Independence, Mo.

Independent

Indianapolis

Indianapolitan

Jackson

Jacksonian

Jersey City

Jersey Cityite

Kansas City

Kansas Citian

Knoxville

Knoxvillian

Las Cruces

Crucen

Las Vegas

Las Vegan

Lawrence, Kan.

Lawrentian

Lawrence, Mass.

Lawrencian

Lebanon, Pa.

Lebanonian

Los Angeles

Angeleno, ✳Los Angelean

Louisville

Louisvillian

Madison

Madisonian

Manhattan (N.Y. or Kan.)

Manhattanite

Maui

Mauian

Memphis

Memphian

Miami

Miamian

Milwaukee

Milwaukeean

Minneapolis

Minneapolitan

Nashville

Nashvillian

Newark

Newarker

New Orleans

New Orleanian, New Orleansian

New York City

New Yorker

Oklahoma City

Oklahoma Cityan, ✳Oklahoma Citian

Omaha

Omahan

Palm Beach

Palm Beacher

Pensacola

Pensacolian

Philadelphia

Philadelphian

Phoenix

Phoenician

Pittsburgh

Pittsburgher

Pontiac

Pontiacker

Portland

Portlander

Princeton

Princetonian

Providence

Providentian

Sacramento

Sacramentan

Saginaw

Saginawian

Salt Lake City

Salt Laker

San Antonio

San Antonian

San Diego

San Diegan

San Francisco

San Franciscan

San Jose

San Josean

Santa Fe

Santa Fean

Saratoga Springs

Saratogian

Saugus

Saugonian

Sault Sainte Marie

Sooite

Savannah

Savannahian

Schenectady

Schenectadian

Seattle

Seattleite, ✳Seattlite

Shreveport

Shreveporter

Spokane

Spokanite

St. Louis

St. Louisan

St. Paul

St. Paulite

Tallahassee

Tallahasseean

Tampa

Tampan

Taos

Taoseno

Troy

Trojan

Tucson

Tucsonan, Tucsonian, Tucsonite

Twin Cities

Twin Citian

Wilkes-Barre

Wilkes-Barrean

Williamsport

Williamsporter

Countries

Afghanistan

Afghan

Argentina

Argentine, Argentinian

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijani

Bahamas

Bahamian

Belarus

Belarusian, Belarusan

Belgium

Belgian

Cayman Islands

Caymanian, Cayman Islander

China

Chinese

Colombia

Colombian

Czech Republic

Czech

Denmark

Dane

Egypt

Egyptian

El Salvador

Salvadoran (AmE), Salvadorian (BrE)

England

English

Finland

Finn, Finnish, Finlander

France

French

Germany

German

Great Britain

Briton

Greece

Greek

Greenland

Greenlander

Grenada

Grenadian, Grenadan

Guam

Guamanian

Guyana

Guyanese

Haiti

Haitian

Honduras

Honduran

Hungary

Hungarian

Indonesia

Indonesian

Iran

Iranian

Iraq

Iraqi

Ireland

Irish

Israel

Israeli

Italy

Italian

Jamaica

Jamaican

Japan

Japanese

Jordan

Jordanian

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstani

Kenya

Kenyan

Korea

Korean

Kuwait

Kuwaiti

Laos

Lao, Laotian

Lebanon

Lebanese

Libya

Libyan

Liechtenstein

Liechtensteiner

Luxembourg

Luxembourger

Macedonia

Macedonian

Madagascar

Malagasy

Malaysia

Malaysian

Maldova

Maldovan

Mali

Malian

Malta

Maltese

Martinique

Martiniquais

Mexico

Mexican

Micronesia

Micronesian

Monaco

Monegasque, ✳Monacan

Mongolia

Mongolian

Morocco

Moroccan

Myanmar

Burmese, Myanmarese

Nepal

Nepalese

The Netherlands

Netherlander, Hollander, Netherlandian

New Zealand

New Zealander

Nicaragua

Nicaraguan

Niger

Nigerien

Nigeria

Nigerian

Norway

Norwegian

Oman

Omani

Pakistan

Pakistani

Palau

Palauan

Panama

Panamanian

Paraguay

Paraguayan

Peru

Peruvian

Philippines

Filipino

Poland

Pole

Portugal

Portuguese

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rican

Qatar

Qatari

Romania

Romanian

Russia

Russian

Rwanda

Rwandan

San Marino

Sammarinese, San Marinese

Saudi Arabia

Saudi, Saudi Arabian

Scotland

Scot

Senegal

Senegalese

Seychelles

Seychellois

Singapore

Singaporean

Slovakia

Slovak

Slovenia

Slovene

Somalia

Somali

South Africa

South African

Spain

Spaniard

Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan, Ceylonese

Sudan

Sudanese

Sumatra

Sumatran

Turkey

Turk

Turkmenistan

Turkmen (pl. Turkmens)

Uganda

Ugandan

Ukraine

Ukrainian

United States

American

Uruguay

Uruguayan

Uzbekistan

Uzbek

Vanuatu

Ni-Vanuatu

Venezuela

Venezuelan

Vietnam

Vietnamese

Virgin Islands

Virgin Islander

Wales

Welsh

Zambia

Zambian

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwean

Foreign Cities and Regions

Alberta, Canada

Albertan

Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Amsterdammer

Athens, Greece

Athenian

Baghdad, Iraq

Baghdadi

Bangkok, Thailand

Bangkokian

Béarn, France

Béarnais (not Béarnaise)

Beijing, China

Beijinger

Belgrade, Yugoslavia

Belgrader

Berlin, Germany

Berliner

Bern, Switzerland

Bernese

Birmingham, England

Brummie

Bogotá, Colombia

Bogotano

Bologna, Italy

Bolognese

Bordeaux, France

Bordelais

British Columbia, Canada

British Columbian

Brussels, Belgium

Bruxellois

Budapest, Hungary

Budapestiek

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Porteño

Cairo, Egypt

Cairene

Cambridge, England

Cantabrigian

Canton, China

Cantonese

Cheshire, England

Cestrian

Copenhagen, Denmark

Copenhagener

Cornwall, England

Cornish

Devonshire, England

Devonian

Dijon, France

Dijonese

Dublin, Ireland

Dubliner

Dundee, Scotland

Dundonian

Edinburgh, Scotland

Edinburgher

Exeter, England

Exonian

Flanders, Belgium

Flemish

Florence, Italy

Florentine

Fontainebleau, France

Bellifontain

Geneva, Switzerland

Genevan, Genevese

Genoa, Italy

Genovese, Genoan

Glasgow, Scotland

Glaswegian

Halifax, Nova Scotia

Haligonian

Hamburg, Germany

Hamburger

Hampshire, England

Hantsian

Hanover, Germany

Hanoverian

Havana, Cuba

Havanan

Helsinki, Finland

Helsinkian

Hong Kong, China

Hong Konger, ✳Hong Kongite, ✳Hong Kongian

Isle of Man, England

Manx

Isle of Wight, England

Vectian

Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbullu

Jerusalem, Israel

Jerusalemite

Johannesburg, S. Africa

Johannesburger

Lima, Peru

Limeño

Lisbon, Portugal

Lisboan

Liverpool, England

Liverpudlian

London, England

Londoner

Lyons, France

Lyonnais

Madrid, Spain

Madrileno

Majorca, Spain

Majorcan

Manchester, England

Mancunian

Manila, Philippines

Manilite

Manitoba, Canada

Manitoban

Melbourne, Australia

Melburnian

Metz, France

Messin

Mexico City, Mexico

Chilango

Milan, Italy

Milanese

Montenegro, Yugoslavia

Montenegrin

Moscow, Russia

Muscovite

Naples, Italy

Neapolitan

Nazareth, Israel

Nazarene

New Brunswick, Canada

New Brunswicker

Newcastle, Australia

Novocastrian

Newcastle, England

Geordie

Newfoundland, Canada

Newfoundlander, Newfie

New South Wales, Australia

New South Welshman

Nice, France

Niçois

Norfolk, England

North Anglian

Northumberland, England

Northumbrian

Nova Scotia, Canada

Nova Scotian

Ontario, Canada

Ontarian

Oxford, England

Oxonian

Paris, France

Parisian

Prague, Czech Republic

Praguer

Prince Edward Island, Canada

Prince Edward Islander

Quebec, Canada

Quebecer

Quito, Ecuador

Quiteño

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Carioca

Rome, Italy

Roman

Saint-Cloud, France

Clodoaldien

Salzburg, Austria

Salzburger

San Juan, Puerto Rico

San Juanero

Santiago, Chile

Santiaguino

Sao Paulo, Brazil

Paulista

Saskatchewan, Canada

Saskatchewanian

Serbia, Yugoslavia

Serb

Shanghai, China

Shanghailander

Shropshire, England

Salopian

St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

Cruzan

Stockholm, Sweden

Stockholmer

St. Petersburg, Russia

St. Petersburger

Stratford-on-Avon, England

Stratfordian

Sydney, Australia

Sydneysider

Tangier, Morocco

Tangerine

Tasmania, Australia

Tasmanian

Tehran, Iran

Tehrani

Tel Aviv, Israel

Tel Avivian

The Hague, Netherlandse Hague, Netherlands

Hagenaar

Tokyo, Japan

Tokyoite

Toronto, Canada

Torontonian

Tripoli, Libya

Tripolitan

Trois-Rivières, Canada

Trifl uvien uvien

Vancouver, Canada

Vancouverite

Venice, Italy

Venetian

Verona, Italy

Veronese

Vienna, Austria

Viennese

Winnipeg, Canada

Winnipegger

Garner’s Modern American Usage, Bryan A. Garner

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