18.7 Audio and audiovisual materials
For broadcasts and recordings the ordering of elements within a citation may differ according to the content of the recording or the purpose for which it is cited: sound recordings, for example, might be best listed under the name of the conductor, the name of the composer, or even the name of the ensemble. As with all citations, sufficient information should be given to enable the reader to understand what type of work it is, and how to find it.
18.7.2 Audio recordings
Essential elements to include are title (see
Davis, Miles, and others, ‘So What’, in Kind of Blue, rec. 1959 (Columbia CK 64935, 1997) [CD].
Vitry, Philippe de, Philippe de Vitry and the Ars Nova, Orlando Consort (Amon Ra CD-SAR 49, 1991) [incl. sleeve notes by Daniel Leech-Wilkinson, ‘Philippe de Vitry and the 14th-Century Motet’].
Audio recordings that combine different works without a clear single title may require more than one title:
In recording numbers a hyphen rather than an en rule is the norm. Where a range of such numbers is given they should never be elided:
18.7.3 Films, videos, and broadcasts
• title of the piece (italic or single quotation marks), or a description of what the item is (roman):
The Empire Strikes Back
‘How to Play Women’s Lacrosse’
interview with Albert Einstein
• broadcasting or production details, including a date
• short description of the medium, unless this is already made clear by the context or a heading within the bibliography.
If the citation is of a digital version of a pre-digital film or broadcast, include details of the original work, the source type (video etc.), date of post, and URI.
Podcasts can be treated similarly: