9 Quotations and direct speech

9.1 General principles

A direct quotation presents the exact words spoken on a particular occasion or written in a particular place. It can be of any length, but there are legal restrictions on how much of another’s work one may repeat; for more on copyright see Chapter 20.

A direct quotation or passage of direct speech should be clearly indicated and, unlike a paraphrase, should exactly reproduce the words of the original. Although the wording of the quoted text should be faithfully reproduced, the extent to which the precise form of the original source is replicated will vary with context and editorial preference.

Quotations from early manuscripts may call for more or less complex and specialist conventions that are not discussed here.


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New Hart's Rules