- 1 1.1 (lanzar, tirar) to throw echó la botella por la ventanilla she threw the bottle out of the window lo eché a la basura I threw it out o/or away echó la moneda al aire he tossed the coin echó una piedra al agua she threw a stone into the water échame la pelota throw me the ball, throw the ball to me echaron el ancla they cast their anchor o/or dropped anchor echó la red he cast his net echó la cabeza hacia atrás she threw her head back echó la mano a la pistola he grabbed o/or made a grab for his gun le echó los brazos al cuello she threw her arms around his neck echar a algn a perder to spoil sb echar algo a perder [sorpresa/preparativos] to spoil sth, ruin sth ha luchado tanto y ahora lo echa todo a perder he's fought so hard and now he's throwing it all away la helada echó a perder la cosecha the frost ruined the harvest echar de menos algo/a algn to miss sth/sb ¿cuándo lo echaste de menos? when did you miss it o/or realize it was missing? te echo mucho de menos I really miss you, I miss you terribly 1.2 (soltar) les echaron los perros they set the dogs on them echó el semental a la yegua he put the mare to the stud 1.3 [Juegos/Games] [carta] to play, put down echarle las cartas a algn to read sb's cards
- 2 (expulsar) [persona] (de un trabajo) to fire [familiar/colloquial], to sack (inglés británico/British English) [familiar/colloquial]; (de un bar, teatro) to throw … out; (de un colegio) to expel me echaron (del trabajo) I was fired, I got the sack (inglés británico/British English) me echó de casa he threw o/or turned me out (of the house) entre dos camareros lo echaron a la calle two of the waiters threw him out
- 3 3.1 (poner) to put le echaste mucha sal a la sopa you put too much salt in the soup ¿cuánto azúcar le echas al café? how many sugars do you take in your coffee? echa esa camisa a la ropa sucia put that shirt in with the dirty laundry, put that shirt out for the wash echa más leña al fuego put some more wood on the fire ¿qué te echaron los Reyes? (España/Spain) what did Santa bring you? échale valor y díselo [familiar/colloquial] just pluck up your courage and tell him 3.2 (servir, dar) to give échame un poquito de vino can you pour o/or give me a little wine? ¿te echo más salsa? do you want some more sauce? tenía que echar de comer a los cerdos he had to feed the pigs tengo que echarles de comer a los niños [familiar, humorístico/colloquial, humorous] I have to feed the children, I have to get the children's dinner ( o/or lunch etc) lo que me/le echen (España/Spain) [familiar/colloquial], yo, de trabajo, lo que me echen I'll do whatever needs doing [familiar/colloquial] este come lo que le echen he'll eat whatever's put in front of him [familiar/colloquial]
- 4 [carta] to mail (inglés norteamericano/American English) to post (inglés británico/British English)
- 5 5.1 (pasar, correr) [cortinas] to pull, draw échale la llave lock it la persiana estaba echada the blinds were down ¿echaste el cerrojo? did you bolt the door? 5.2 (mover) échalo a un lado push it to one side lo echó para atrás she pushed ( o/or moved etc) it backward(s)
- 6 (expeler, despedir) echaba espuma por la boca he was foaming at the mouth el motor echa mucho humo there's a lot of smoke coming from the engine el volcán echaba humo y lava the volcano was belching out smoke and lava ¡qué peste echa esa fábrica! [familiar/colloquial] what a stink that factory gives off! [familiar/colloquial] chispa2
- 7 (producir) 7.1 [hojas] to sprout la planta ya está echando flores the plant is already flowering 7.2 [dientes] to cut estás echando barriga [familiar/colloquial] you're getting a bit of a tummy [familiar/colloquial]
- 8 8.1 (dirigir) [sermón/discurso] (+ me/te/le etc) me echó un sermón por llegar tarde [familiar/colloquial] he gave me a real talking-to for being late [familiar/colloquial] nos echó un discurso de dos horas [familiar/colloquial] she gave us a two-hour lecture [familiar/colloquial] le echó una maldición she put a curse on him peste 8.2 [familiar/colloquial] (imponer) [condena/multa] (+ me/te/le etc) to give le echaron una multa he was fined, they gave him a fine, he got a fine me echaron dos años I got two years [familiar/colloquial]
- 9 [familiar/colloquial] (calcular) (+ me/te/le etc) ¿cuántos años me echas? how old do you think I am? le echo 20 años I'd say he was 20, I'd put him at 20 [familiar/colloquial] ¿cuánto te costó? — ¿cuánto le echas? how much did it cost you? — how much do you think? o/or have a guess de aquí a tu casa échale una media hora it's o/or it takes about half an hour from here to your house
- 10 (España/Spain) [familiar/colloquial], (dar, exhibir) [programa/película] to show ¿qué echan en el Imperial? what are they showing at the Imperial?, what's on at the Imperial? ¿qué echan en la tele esta noche? what's on TV tonight?
- 11 (España/Spain) [familiar/colloquial], (pasar) [tiempo] to spend echamos un rato agradable con ellos we spent o/or had a pleasant few hours with them
- 14 (con sustantivos) echar un cigarrillo [familiar/colloquial] to have a cigarette echar una firma [familiar/colloquial] to sign echar el freno to put the brake on me echó una mirada furibunda she gave o/or threw me a furious look echaron unas manos de póquer they played o/or had a few hands of poker cuenta1 1 1, culpa, mirada, partida, siesta, etc
- 1 (empezar) echar
a+ infinitivo/infinitiveto start o/or begin to + infinitivo/infinitive, start o/or begin -ingal ver que lo seguían echó a correr when he saw they were following him he started to run o started running o broke into a run echó a andar sin esperarnos he set off without waiting for us el motor echó a andar a la primera the engine started (the) first time las palomas echaron a volar the doves flew off
- 2 (dirigirse) echó calle abajo she went off down the street echa por aquí a ver si podemos aparcar go down here to see if we can find a place to park echaron por la primera calle a la derecha they took the first street on the right
- 3echar para adelante or [familiar/colloquial] p'alante, echa para adelante un poco, si no vas a bloquear la salida del garaje go forward a little, or else you'll block the garage exit echa p'alante y verás cómo te sale bien go for it! everything will turn out all right, you'll see [familiar/colloquial] echa p'alante, que ya llegamos keep going, we're nearly there
echarse v pron
- 1 1.1 (tirarse, arrojarse) to throw oneself nos echamos al suelo we threw ourselves to the ground se echó en sus brazos she threw o/or flung herself into his arms se echó de cabeza al agua she dived into the water échate hacia atrás lean back la noche se nos echó encima night fell suddenly, it was night before we knew it echarse a perder [comida] to go bad, go off (inglés británico/British English) [proyecto/preparativos] to be ruined se me echó a perder el televisor my television's broken era muy bonita pero se ha echado a perder she used to be very pretty but she's lost her looks desde que se ha juntado con ellos se ha echado a perder since he started hanging out with them he's gone off the rails [familiar/colloquial] encima 1.2 (tumbarse, acostarse) to lie down se echó en la cama he lay down on the bed me voy a echar un rato I'm going to lie down for a while, I'm going to have a lie-down (inglés británico/British English) 1.3 (apartarse, moverse) (+ complemento/+ complement) se echó a un lado she moved to one side me tuve que echar a la cuneta I had to go off the edge of the road échate para allá y nos podremos sentar todos if you move over that way a bit we can all sit down echarse atrás to back out dijo que iba a venir, pero luego se echó atrás she said she was going to come, but then she changed her mind o pulled out o backed out cuando vieron que iba a ser difícil se echaron atrás when they saw that it was going to be difficult, they got cold feet o/or backed out echárselas (Chile) [familiar/colloquial], el jefe no le quiso pagar más y se las echó the boss didn't want to pay him any more so he upped and left [familiar/colloquial] se las echó cerro arriba he went off up the hill echárselas de algo [familiar/colloquial], se las echa de culto he likes to think he's cultured se las echa de gran conocedor de vinos he claims to be o makes out he is a bit of a wine connoisseur, he likes to think of himself as o (inglés británico/British English) he fancies himself as a bit of a wine connoisseur [familiar/colloquial]
- 2 2.1 (ponerse) to put on échate crema o te quemarás con este sol put some cream on or you'll burn in this sun se echó el abrigo por los hombros she threw the coat around her shoulders espalda 2.2 [familiar/colloquial] [novio/novia] se ha echado novia he's found o/or got himself a girlfriend 2.3 (México/Mexico) [familiar/colloquial], (tragarse) to drink
- 3 (empezar) echarse
a+ infinitivo/infinitiveto start -ingo/or start to + infinitivo/infinitivese echó a llorar he started crying o/or to cry, he burst into tears se echaron a reír they started laughing o/or to laugh, they burst out laughing se echó a correr cuesta abajo he ran o/or he set off at a run down the hill solo de pensarlo me echo a temblar just thinking about it gives me the shivers [familiar/colloquial]
- 5 (México/Mexico) [familiar/colloquial], (romper) to break echarse a algn al plato (México/Mexico) [familiar/colloquial] to bump sb off [familiar/colloquial]
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Spain's War of Independence against Napoleon Bonaparte's French occupation was ignited by the popular revolt in Madrid on 2 May 1808 against the French army. With support from the Duke of Wellington, Spanish resistance continued for over five years in a guerra de guerrillas which gave the world the concept and the term guerrilla warfare. The autocratic Fernando VII was restored to the throne in 1814, and his first act was to abolish the progressive Constitution of Cadiz adopted in 1812.