- 1.1 (consejo) lo hizo por recomendación mía he did it on my recommendation o/or advice decidió irse, ignorando las recomendaciones de sus padres she decided to go, ignoring her parents' advice 1.2 (para un empleo) reference, recommendation carta de recomendación letter of reference o/or recommendation
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Spain's War of Independence against Napoleon Bonaparte's French occupation was ignited by the popular revolt in Madrid on 2 May 1808 against the French army. With support from the Duke of Wellington, Spanish resistance continued for over five years in a guerra de guerrillas which gave the world the concept and the term guerrilla warfare. The autocratic Fernando VII was restored to the throne in 1814, and his first act was to abolish the progressive Constitution of Cadiz adopted in 1812.